Theoretical Explanations Contemporary researchers provide numerous theoretical explanations to hate crime. The Office of Justice Programs Fact Sheet indicates that 45 states have statutes related to hate Term papers on hate crimes those 45 laws of course different in what groups are protected, what crimes are considered hate crimes, and what penalties are meted out for perpetrators OJP, Hate Crimes are just not statistics, ask anyone who has everbeen inflicted by it.
For example, the city of New York inhabits millions of people from all over the world. In that same issue of the Congressional Record December 5,Congressman James McGovern from Massachusetts pointed out that since September 11 of that year, "hate crimes against Muslim and Arab-Americans and immigrants have increased all over the country.
Even then, there is still little evidence that the developed world is facing a hate crime epidemic.
The New York Times' article Brooke, p. Compare the Four Ordering Options 1. These arguments describe the relationship between bias crimes and parallel crimes.
The Benjamin Smith shootings and the murder of Matthew Shepard are only two examples of recent crimes, which have been considered hate crimes that have promoted politicians and legislators to address this ever-growing problem and formulate a solution.
The paper reviews the most popular theoretical explanations of hate crime, the role of stigma, attitudes, and prejudice in hate crimes, as well as the future of hate crime in the developed world.
Lyons proposes another explanation to hate crime, based on the feeling of blame, which potential victimizer places on the gay, lesbian, or bisexual victim for distorting the discussed balance of fairness and justice in society.
Nonetheless, as members of sexual minorities are becoming more explicit in their preferences and orientations, theoretical explanations and possible factors of hate crime need to be considered. Added to this is the rapid proliferation of sex-related stereotypical beliefs and the distorted perceptions of fairness and justice in a diverse society Lyons, She went on, suggesting that understanding "intent of a man or woman who kills or maims because of their hatred of an entire group, class, or race of people" is pivotal in determining the cause, and should be taken into consideration Congressional Record.
As the US Federal Bureau of Investigation FBI notes, Crimes of hatred and prejudice--from lynchings to cross burnings to vandalism of synagogues--are a sad fact of American history, but the term "hate crime" did not enter the nation's vocabulary until the s, when emerging hate groups like the Skinheads launched a wave of bias-related crime "Hate Crime," b.
Should they be allowed to stay in the country, and under what conditions? Finally, the effects of numerous factors on the rates of hate crime reporting cannot be underestimated.
The punishment is stricter in order to develop tolerance and defeat all the prejudices connected with the inequality of people. Generally, hate crime is referred to any form of unlawful conduct against different target groups, including racial minorities and gays Green et al. Each customer will get a non-plagiarized term paper with timely delivery.
Twenty years later, Herek explored the rates of hate crime among sexual minorities and found that every fifth respondent reported having faced a property or person crime based on their sexual orientation, while every tenth respondent indicated having experienced housing or employment discrimination.
Sexual stigma has far-reaching psychological and social consequences for LGBT individuals, who may experience stresses and develop a subjective sense of threat Herek, This explains the emergence of numerous human rights organizations to protect the underrepresented and enforce nondiscrimination.
According to Green et al. For example, if the criminal has murdered someone because of money or property, he will be punished less strictly, than for the murder of the person belonging to the different race or the one possessing different religious views.
Hate Crimes against Muslims after September 11, The attacks of September 11,sent shockwaves through American society. Jenness says that this should occur, particularly, at prosecutorial practices in order to form definite conclusions towards the consequences of bias crimes in the country. Earlier inHerek also analyzed the topic of stigma and described the social psychology of sexual prejudice.
An example is the actus reus of perjury which occurs when the defendant lies under oath regardless of the effect that the lie has on the case. Back inGregory M. While the hate crime definition used by the FBI for purposes of crime statistics includes sexual orientation, disability and gender as protected categories, this is not the case for all hate crime laws.
Hate crimes are defined differently in each state therefore, there are currently a number of various laws and definitions that cover hate crimes depending on the jurisdiction or state in which the crime is committed. Illegal Immigration One of the most controversial social and political issues in the United States in the early twenty-first century has involved illegal immigrants, also known as undocumented workers.Hate crimes are a specific type of crime committed against individuals or groups because of their race, religion, sexual orientation, gender, age, or ethnicity.
Read Hate Crimes free essay and over 88, other research documents. Hate Crimes. Hate Crimes Critical Analysis Cheyenne Gallant December 6, Res /Introduction to Research and Information Utilization Instructor: Stephan Wertz /5(1).
The term "hate crime" was coined in the s by journalists and policy advocates who were attempting to describe a series of incidents directed. Hate Crimes Term Paper: Hate crimes is the special branch of crimes, known as offense against the person, which are committed by an individual under the effect of hate towards the representatives of the different race, nationality, ethnicity, the bearers of the different religious and political views, different gender and sexual orientation.
However, the topic of hate crime in social and crime research is not new, and the first definitions of hate crime were coined at the beginning of s (Green, McFalls & Smith, ).
Hate crime is a complex term encompassing numerous meanings. Hate Crimes Religious & Racial Hate Crimes Introduction: Through history you hear of major crimes committed out of the hate for a certain culture or race or maybe even sexual orientation.
These crimes are now considered a “ Hate Crime ” since after the murder of Matthew Shepard, a gay college kid murdered in Wyoming (Abrams, ).Download